István Örkény, a famous Hungarian short story writer, employs many of these possessive constructions in his story entitled ‘Szakmai Önérzet’ (‘Professional Pride’). Look at the following examples, which present unique constructions but you never know when they’ll come in handy!

1956 and 1989

The date, 23 October in 1956, marked the outbreak of a significant revolution in Hungarian history, when masses stood up against the Stalinist dictatorship. The uprising was soon put down by the invading Soviet troops. Prime Minister Imre Nagy was killed and several thousand people died during the revolution. Thousands more left the country. Janos Kadar, with Soviet support, became the leader of the Communist Party, the governing regime of the nation until the tumultuous events of 1989.

The year 1989 witnessed a number of radical events. Kadar’s rule came to an end and, in February of that year, news broke that shook the country: the Central Committee of the Communist Party had announced the introduction of free elections and a multi-party system. By early summer, long before the collapse of the Berlin wall, Hungarians literally started taking apart the Iron Curtain: the barbed-wire border fence that separated Hungary from Austria and thus, from the West. 16 June marked the official reburial of Imre Nagy in Budapest. Hundreds of thousands came to witness the event in Heroes Square. Roughly a month later, Janos Kadar died. On 23 October, the Republic of Hungary was declared and 23 October became a national holiday. Relevancia: építészet 

The Statue Park

The Szoborpark Muzeum (Statue Park Museum) is an open-air museum in the outskirts of Budapest. If you would like to see wh* public statues looked like in the Communist past, you may wish t to visit the park. It houses a selection of statues that were torn down in 1956 or during the changing political sentiments of 1989 and the early 1990s.

2.2 LEXICAL MEANING

every word (lexical unit) has ... something that is individual, that makes it different from any other word. And it is just the lexical meaning which is the most outstanding individual property of the word.

pic

(Xgusta, 1971:67)

The lexical meaning of a word or lexical unit may he thought of as the specific value it has in a particular linguistic system and the ‘personality’ it acquires through usage within that system. It is rarely possible to analyse a word, pattern, or structure into distinct com­ponents of meaning; the way in which language works is much too complex to allow that. Nevertheless, it is sometimes useful to play down the complexities of language temporarily in order both to appreciate them and to be able to handle them better in the long run. With this aim in mind, we will now briefly discuss a model for English-Hungarian certificate translation

Equivalence at word level 13

analysing the components of lexical meaning. This model is largely derived from Cruse (1986), but the description of register (2.2.3 below) also draws on Halliday (1978). For alternative models of lexical meaning see Zgusta (1971: Chapter 1) and Leech (1974: Chapter 2).

According to Cruse, we can distinguish four main types of meaning in words and ulferances (utterances being stretches of written or spoken text): propositional meaning, hungarian legal translation expressive meaning, presup­posed meaning,' and evoked meaning.

2.2.1 Propositional vs expressive meaning

The propositional meaning of a word or an utterance arises from the relation between it and what it refers to or describes in a real or imaginary world, as conceived by the speakers of the particular language to which the word or utterance belongs. It is this type of meaning which provides the basis on which we can judge an utterance as true or false. hungarian intensive course district 19 For instance, the propositional meaning of shirt is ‘a piece of clothing worn on the upper part of the body’. It would be inaccurate to use shirt, under normal circumstances, to refer to a piece of clothing worn on the foot, such as socks. When a translation is described as ‘inaccurate’, it is often the propositional meaning that is being called into question.

Expressive meaning hungarian english specialized translator cannot be judged as true or false. This is because expressive meaning relates to the speaker’s2 feelings or attitude rather than to what words and utterances TeferTo. The difference between Don’t complain and Don’t whinge does not lie in their propositional meanings but in the expressiveness of whinge, which suggests that the speaker finds the action annoying. Two or more words or utterances can therefore have the same propositional meaning but differ in their expressive meanings. This is true not only of words and utterances within the same language, where such words are often referred to as synonyms or near-synonyms, but also for words and utterances from different languages. The difference between famous in English hungarian language course district 19 and fameux in French does not lie in their respective propositional meanings; both items basically mean ‘well- known’. It lies in their expressive meanings. Famous is neutral in English: it has no inherent evaluative meaning or connotation. Fameux, on the other hand, is potentially evaluative and can be readily used in some contexts in a derogatory way (for example, une femme fameuse means, roughly, ‘a woman of ill repute’).

It is worth noting that differences between words in the area of

3.6  Is price any guide to quality?

Good quality translation takes time and costs money. translation hungarian english district 9 All buyers of translation services will want value for money but this does not necessarily mean that the cheapest is the least expensive in the long term. Many translation services providers will quote a low price for translation, just to get a ‘foot in the door’, but will then add supplements for additional services such as:

•    ‘technical translation’

•    independent checking

•    layout

•    project management

•    glossary compilation.

It is therefore important to ask what is included in the price. It is also important to ask what the translation services provider’s quality policy is and request a copy of it. This will give a good indication whether or not the translation services provider is serious about quality management or is just paying lip service to the concept.

A reliable method is to use a translation services provider who is recommended by a colleague or associate. Again the caveat is whether or not the colleague is able to assess the quality provided. official hungarian translation budapest Translation is but one element of the documentation value chain so it is important that the source document be suitable for the intended reader. A translation services provider has great difficulty making ‘a silk purse out of a sow’s car’.

33

A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR TRANSLATORS

The following presents a number of options when seeking a services provider. Although “No” is written in some cases, such services or attribute may not be appropriate to the individual translator. ISO 9002 is a case in point.

 

Types of translation services provider

Services provided

Freelance

translator

Small

translation

agency

Non-accredited

medium-sized

translation

agency

Accredited

translation

company

Broad range of languages

Mo

Limited

Yes

Yes

Extensive range of hardware and software

No

Limited

Yes

Yes

In-house translation resources

Yes

No

No

Yes

External translation resources

. No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Independent checking

lllliilfesssip

No

Possibly

Yes

Glossary compilation

Yes

slisilNpllil

Limited

Yes

Project management

No

Limited

Yes

Yes

Reference library

limited

Limited

Limited

Yes

Translation tools

Limited

No

No

Yes

Desk top publishing facilities

Limited

Limited

Possibly

Yes

Software localisation and verification

No

No

No

Yes

Website translation

No

Limited

Limited

Yes

Capacity to handle major projects in several languages

No

Limited

Yes

Yes

Accreditation to ISO 9002

No

No

No

Yes

Table 3. Matrix of services provider options

 

3.6.1   What happens to an assignment when it goes to a translator

Though the translation process should be transparent to the client, it is important to know what happens to it once the client has handed it over to the translator. I have used the generic term translator in this context since the flowchart shown on the next page illustrates how a translation is handled from the time it leaves the client to when itis delivered. This process is taken from the ISO 9002 documentation of Aardvark Translation Services Limited.

Long vowels are orthographically distinguished from their short coun- - terparts with the 'acute' mark placed on top of the corresponding short vowels (a, e, f, 6, 6, u, u), long consonants by doubling the consonant letter. Note that length is important in Hungarian because it distinguishes
fish - hear
pseudo - chin - stand (verb) he/she/it was happy - mad, crazy he/she/it breaks sg - dagger
the case of doubled (long) cs, dz, dzs, gy, ly, ny, sz, ty, and zs only the
“'St consonant is doubled orthographically: ccs, ddz, ddzs, ggy, lly, nny, ssz,
tty, zzs. In hyphenated words a doubled consonant still appears as = combination of two short consonants:
asszony - asz-szony (woman); froccsen - frocs-csen (spray)
•    The length in the case of a - a and e - e is not the only
- distinguishing feature in standard colloquial Hungarian. They are also qualitatively different (short e is actually more open than the corresponding long e; short a is a back and rounded vowel - pronounced with the lips drawn together as in the pronunciation of o - 6; as opposed to a, a is a central and non-round vowel, as in colloquial BBC English fire/hire pronounced with [a:]).
The phonetically short counterpart to e, as well as the long counterpart to a are only found dialectally in Hungarian.
•    The consonants spelled ly - j are pronounced identically today.
The difference between the two is historical (like English meet - meat).
•    In contrast to English, in Hungarian there are no diphthongs (i.e. two vocalic segments pronounced together with no intervening consonant or pause). If there are two vowels following each other they are pronounced as two independent vowels: individuum - individual, beall - stand in something. In certain combinations, a 'filler']' is inserted between two voweLs in pronunciation only, not in spelling:
faert [fajert] - for wood, kutyae [kutyaje] - belonging to the dog, fia [fija] - his/her son.
•    In Hungarian it is always the first syllable (vowel) that receives the main stress: this applies to loan words (Nobel-dij - Nobel prize) too. Length is not decisive in the placement of stress: both short and long vowels can be stressed: korona - crown, iskola - school, sopor - brush (verb), elet - life, alom - dream, tancol - dance (verb), miert - why?
•    When two consonants are close to each other consonant-voice assimilation happens: it is always the second consonant that makes the preceding consonant agree with it in terms of voicing (this regressive assimilation is not shown in orthography):
hazteto [haszteto] - roof, fogkefe [fokkefe] - toothbrush.

Those assimilatory changes that are shown in the orthography will be treated in the appropriate section.BACK hungarian translator